Establishment of Mughal Empire

Establishment of Mughal Empire

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Establishment of Mughal Empire

Establishment of Mughal Empire

Babur {1526-1530AD}

Establishment of Mughal Empire
Zaheeruddin Babur
The Mughal Empire was founded by Zaheeruddin Babur, Babur defeated Ibramlodi in the First Battle of Panipat on 21 April 1526 and laid the foundation of the Mughal Empire in India, Babur was born in 1483 at Fargana. The father's name was Sheikh Mirza and mother's name was Kutlugh Nikhar Khan. Babur became the ruler of Fargana in 1494 AD. 1504 AD on Babur Kabul I took possession, Babur had done the paternal title of Mirza Babar in 1519 AD. In Bazor and Bhera captured the Indian state, Babur used artillery in the Bhera campaign. His son Humayun was also with Babur in the fifth war, the first battle of Panipat on 21 April 1526. Babur took the Tulguma war method from Uzbekistan. The title of Kalandar was conferred on Babur, Babur composed his autobiography Baburnama in Turkish language in 1530 AD. In Agra, Babur's body was buried in Kabu
              Humayun[1530-1556AD]
Establishment of Mughal Empire

Humayun sat on the throne on 30 December 1530 AD. The full name of Naseeruddin Muhammad Humayun was. The battle of Daurah took place in 1532 AD between Humayun and Mahmud Lodi. In 1533 AD, Humayun built a large fort called Dinpanah in Delhi to impress friends and enemies. Humayun named the Gaur region of Bengal as Janatabad. The Battle of Kannauj (Bilgram) Humayun married Hamida Banu Begum, daughter of Shia Mir Baba friend alias Mir Ali on August 14, 1560, in 29 August 1561 AD Humayun believed in astrologers. He used to wear white on Monday, black on Saturday and yellow on Sunday. Humayun opened a madrasa-e-begum school in Delhi. Humayun died in January 1557, falling from the stairs of the library of Dinpanah Bhavan. He said about Humayun in Lenpul - "Humayun stumbled throughout his life and gave his life while staggering". Humayun has been called 'Insan-e-Kamil' by Abdul Fazal.

Sher Shah Suri [1580–1565 AD]

Establishment of Mughal Empire

Sher Shah Khan's initial name was Farid Khan. Sherkhan's father was Hasan Khan (small zamindar of Jaunpur). Farid Khan used to work at the Sultan of Bihar, Muhammed Shah Nuhani. Shar Khan sat on the throne of Delhi in 1580 AD at the age of 6 years. At the time of his coronation, Sher Khan assumed the title of Sher Shah. Sher Shah built Rohtasgarh Fort to secure its north-west border. The night attack on the Raisin Fort made by Sher Shah has been called a black spot on it. Sher Shah is also called the forerunner of Akbar. The ruler of Kalinjar at the time of Sher Shah was Kirat Singh. Sher Shah divided his entire empire into 4 governments. Sher Shah divided the land into good, medium and poor three parts on the basis of production. Qila-e-Kuhna mosque was built by Sher Shah Suri. Abbas Khan praised Sher Shah and said that "he was the second Hyder in intelligence and experience". Sher Shah had assumed the title of 'Sultan-ul-Adal'. Sher Shah died in 1545 AD after hitting the cannon shell after hitting the wall of the fort of Kalinjar.

Akbar [1557-1805 AD]

Establishment of Mughal Empire

Akbar was born on 15 October 1582 in the palace of Rana Veerasal of Amarkot. Akbar first got the Subedar of Ghazni at the age of nine. Akbar's mentor was Munim Khan. (In Ghazni). The patron of Yuvraj Akbar was appointed Ottoman general Bairam Khan. Akbar's coronation took place on 14 February 1557 in Kalanaur. At this time, he was 13 years old. Akbar sat on the throne with the title of Emperor Ghazi. Bairam Khan remained the patron of Akbar till 1560 AD. The battle of Haldighati was fought between Akbar and Maharanapratap in June 158 AD. Akbar won Khandesh in 1591 AD. Akbar, who was considered the gateway to South India, announced Din-i-Ilahi or 'Tauhin-i-Ilahi' in 1572 AD. Hinduism had the maximum effect of Akbar. Akbar gave Birbal the title of Kaviraj and Raja.
Akbar's Navratna
 1> Mulla do onions
2> Raja Mansingh 3> Hakim Hukam 4> Todarmal 5> Abdur Rahim Khana 4> Faizi 4> Abdul Fazal 4> Birbal 4> Tansen


        Some important works of Akbar

1542 AD> End of slavery
1582 AD> Liberation of Akbar's 'Harmadal',
 1583> Pilgrimage ends,
157> Jiziya tax finished,
1561> Establishment of Fatehpur Sikri and transfer of capital from Agra to Fatehpur,
1565> Establishment of prayer,
 1549> declaration of Mahazar,
1540> Dahsala system applied,
1582> Deen-e-Elahi declaration

Jahangir [1805-1926 AD]

Establishment of Mughal Empire

Jahangir's real name was Salim. Jahangir's mother's name was Maryam. Akbar used to call him as Shekho Baba. Jahangir's mentor was Abdurrahim Khankhana. Jahangir ascended the throne on October 21, 1805 and was crowned as Niruddin Muhammad Jahangir Badshah Ghazi in Agra. Jahangir announced 12 orders related to the purpose of public welfare. Jahangir's fifth order was prohibited on the sale and manufacture of alcohol and other intoxicants. Animal killing was banned on Thursday and Sunday of the week. Jahangir was married to Mehrunnisa in 1811. Jahangir gave the titles of Nurmahal and Nur Jahan after marriage. Ladli Begum was the daughter of Nur Jahan. Jahangir built the tomb of Etmaduddaula by Nur Jahan. Jahangir died in a place called Bhimwar in November 1724. Jahangir was buried at Shahdara on the banks of Ravi river.

Shah Jahan [1627-1656 AD]

Establishment of Mughal Empire

Shah Jahan In February 1724, Shah Jahan's real name was Shahzada Khurram, who sat on the throne. Shah Jahan was married to Arjumand Be Begum. He is known as Mumtaz Mahal. Shah Jahan conferred the title of Khankhana on Mahawat Khan. In 1732, Shah Jahan took over his Hooghly trading center to end the Portuguese influence. Shah Jahan appointed Aurangzeb, the Subedar of the South. Shah Jahan sent Shahzada Murad and Aurangzeb to visit Central Asia. Shah Jahan introduced new coins of "Aana" between the price and the half. Started the contractual practice of revenue collection. The principal painters of Shah Jahan's court were Muhammad Fakir and Mir Hasim. The last battle of succession took place between Dara and Aurangzeb in April 1859. Dara was given the death penalty for defying the religion of Islam. Shah Jahan died in January 14 AD.

Aurangzeb [1858-1707 AD]

Establishment of Mughal Empire

Aurangzeb was a great Mughal ruler of India, who ruled in India for many years. He was the number six Mughal ruler who ruled in India. Aurangzeb ruled for almost 49 years from 1658 to 1707, it was the Mughals after Akbar who remained on the throne of the king for so long. After his death, the Mughal Empire was completely shaken, and was slowly ending. Aurangzeb had carried forward the work of his ancestors very well, the way Akbar had built the Mughal empire with hard work and dedication, Aurangzeb gave this kingdom more support and further increased the empire of Mughals in India. But Aurangzeb did not like his subjects much, because of his behavior. Aurangzeb was a fundamentalist, staunch Muslim and hard-hearted king, Akbar promoted Hindu Muslim unity and he also took care of the needs of his Hindu subjects, but Aurangzeb was not like that at all.
Aurangzeb wanted to make India a Muslim country, he committed great atrocities on Hindus and stopped celebrating Hindu festivals completely. Aurangzeb had also levied additional tax on the non-Muslim people, he used to insist on the people of Kashmir to follow the Muslim religion. When Sikh Guru Tegh Bahadur protested against this by standing with the Kashmiri people, Aurangzeb hanged him. Aurangzeb broke many temples and built mosques in its place. Aurangzeb had once again started the practice of sati, in the state of Aurangzeb, eating and drinking meat, drinking and prostitution increased. Hindus were not given any work in the Mughal Empire.

Seeing the growing atrocities of Aurangzeb, the Marathas revolted against Aurangzeb in 1660, followed by the Jats in 1669, Satnami in 1672, Sikhs in 1675 and Rajputs in 1679 against Aurangzeb. In 1686, the British East India Company also revolted against Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb won many of these battles, but the victory does not always remain with one, successive revolts one after another, the Mughal Empire was shaken and its unity began to break. Aurangzeb's severe austerity also did not work. Art, dance and music went away from the empire, neither the elders were respected here, nor the women were respected. The whole empire was subdued under the orthodox talk of Islam.

Aurangzeb

During the entire reign of Aurangzeb, he was always busy in waging war, because of being a staunch Muslim Hindu king was his biggest enemy. Shivaji was first in his list of enemies. Aurangzeb had also arrested Shivaji, but he had escaped from his captivity. Shivaji, along with his army, fought Aurangzeb and defeated Aurangzeb. In this way, the rule of the Mughals began to end and the Marathas extended their rule.

Death of Aurangzeb -

At the age of 90, Aurangzeb gave up his life on 3 March 1707, Aurangzeb was buried in Daulatabad. During 50 years of rule, Aurangzeb had increased his rebels so much that the Mughal empire came to an end with his death. His ancestor Babur is considered the founder of the Mughal Empire and Aurangzeb became the reason for the end of this empire. Aurangzeb built Moti Masjid in Delhi's Red Fort.

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